This is my third video in the series of Scan My Tesla where I explain how the hidden buffer below 0% works and why you can't get the predicted rated range in the Model 3's Energy Graph from 100% to 0% (or any other Tesla) if you follow the consumption on screen. This has been discussed at lenght in other posts, but the TLDR: 1. All Teslas have a "net" capacity that you can use - on the Model 3 it is around 77-78kWh when brand new 2. Some of that capacity is being hidden below the 0%, but it is factored in in your 100% rated range. 4.5% Is hidden below 0%. 3. The calculation of typical range you see next to the battery icon is based on a specific EPA constant (or Tesla constant) which is different for each model - 153Wh/km for Model 3 LR AWD or 245Wh/mile 4. But even if you drive at the EPA constant - you can't reach the total range predicted, because you have to go below 0%. So the displayed 100% rated range is actually 104.5% or 4.5% less than what you see. Some people know about this, most unfortunately do not. Especially new Model 3 and Tesla drivers since most if not all other EVs use GOM and not an Energy Graph and their 0% is true 0% (most other EVs the car will die shortly after reaching 0% - with Tesla you still have 10-15 miles left) I have done the "visual" test - I charged to full and drove at the exact typical range constant (straight line in your energy graph) which theoreticaly should give me the typical range displayed in the screen at 100% But since Tesla starts to hide some of this as soon as you drive, the true typical range is 95.5% of what you see in your screen. Unless you want to go to below 0% to through 0. What I found out during my test is that the car will hide 5km every 100km so this is why most people will never notice the difference between rated range and real range even if you follow the energy graph. So when you drive 100km at the constant - you remove 105km from the battery icon. When you drive 200km you remove 210km and so on. Here is the video and I hope you will enjoy it - it took several hours to test this.