For years, there has been speculation about when battery balancing occurs. Some speculated it occurred at 90% or higher. Others speculated that it only occurs with the battery fully charged. I had my seatbelt inspection today, and while there the service tech was checking a few things in my diagnostic screens--the BMS tab happened to be up. This reminded me to ask about balancing, since everyone seems to have that question. What I learned is that the pack is *always* balancing. All the time. Which makes perfect sense and agrees with other things we've seen. A while ago wk057 disassembled a pack and discovered bleed resistors. These bleed resistors are what balance the pack, by very slowly consuming power from the highest voltage cells to keep everything balanced. Since the bleed resistors are so tiny, the only way they can really be effective is if they are balancing all the time, and it looks like that is indeed what's happening. This confirms a few things: 1. You don't need to charge to any charge level for the pack to balance. It always happens. 2. Running the pack down to near empty, then fully charging, appears to improve range, but of course this is only imaginary. Doing this doesn't help balance anything, it simply helps the range estimation algorithms get a better view of the voltage range of your pack. Don't do this to improve your range numbers--you're simply stressing the pack for no good reason. (This was generally accepted by many here to be the case). 3. Charging to 100%, and letting it sit there for a few hours (which in my recent experiments seemed to be helpful for indicated range), doesn't improve balancing at all. Again, it just seems to help the algorithms *maybe* improve the *indicated* range. 4. The long, long taper at the end of a 100% charge is not balancing. It's simply providing sips to the pack to top it off. 5. Apparently, an update is coming soon that will improve the algorithm. (This one isn't that newsworthy, but it's nice to hear). So hopefully with this info owners will not go and abuse their pack to try to "initiate" a balancing session. As has been Tesla's suggestion all along, don't worry about the pack, and just let the BMS do it's thing.