There are a number of informative charts on the Internet illustrating international standards for electric-vehicle charging. However, many show ports and/or sockets, and not plugs, and not all include the Tesla proprietary charging-connector standard for comparison.
Allegedly shut out by other manufacturers, the young Tesla independently developed an efficient charging standard for the Model S (2012) in North America. Meanwhile, electric-car-maker industry groups developed their own charging standards in some regions (e.g., CCS Combo 1 and J1772 in North America, CCS Combo 2 and Type 2 in Europe and Oceania, and CHAdeMO in Japan). At last count Tesla manufactured cars with at least four different charging port styles worldwide to meet regional requirements, including:
- Tesla Proprietary Connector (TPC) port in North America, Japan, and South Korea.
- Type 2 ("Mennekes") port on older Models S and X in Europe and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand).
- CCS Combo 2 port on Models 3 and Y and newer Models S and X in Europe and Oceania.
- Dual GB/T AC and DC ports in China.
A comprehensive, comparative diagram of international charge-plug standards could therefore easily require at least two charts:
- One comparing standards for non-Tesla electric cars.
- One for Tesla Models S, X, 3, and Y.
Electric Car Charging-Plug Standards WorldwideNotes:
- NOTE: Diagrams and photos in other online charging-standard comparison charts may include figures of sockets, ports, and/or plugs. The intent here is to illustrate only plugs.
- Models S, X, 3, and Y worldwide require TPC, Type 2, CCS2, or GB/T AC and DC plugs (in red in the chart, above) to accommodate the various regional factory-installed ports. Adapter are required for Tesla cars to use J1772, CHAdeMO, and CCS1 charging equipment.
- Tesla in Europe modified the Mennekes plugs on its (early) Superchargers so that other European electric car brands (with non-modified Type 2 ports) could not use (and be potentially damaged by) the relatively powerful new Superchargers of that period.
- China originally used the European standards, but subsequently developed its own connectors, now used in to all electric cars sold there.
- Taiwan originally used the TPC connectors, but switched to the European standards.
- Although seemingly similar in appearance in some online chart diagrams, the European and Chinese AC charging plug standards are not the same. (They differ in gender and internal design.)
- Japan and China have apparently developed a new, more powerful, combined CHAdeMO-GB/T standard (not yet in use as of February 2022).
- Tesla ("T" indicates sold by Tesla, regionally) and third-party ("●") over-the-counter adapters include connectors for:
T - J1772 plugs to TPC ports
T - CHAdeMO plugs to TPC ports
T - CHAdeMO plugs to Type 2 ports
T - CCS Combo 1 (CCS1) plugs to TPC ports (now available in South Korea, Canada, and the United States)
● - Type 2 plugs to TPC ports
● - CCS2 plugs to TPC ports
T - CCS2 plugs to Type 2 ports
T - GB/T AC plugs to Type 2 ports
T - GB/T DC plugs to Type 2 ports
For illustrations see chart, below.
- A (much-anticipated) CCS1-plug-to-TPC-port adapter has finally been officially released (as of 09/21/2022) by Tesla in North America.
Tesla-made Charging-Cable-to-Car Adapters of the World.
- This adapter is also sold by Tesla in Hong Kong.
- It is unclear whether Tesla-Taiwan's CHAdeMO adapters include either/both Type 2 (the current standard) and TPC varieties.
- May 2022 Update: North American drivers have successfully imported this Tesla-Korea CCS1 adapter (ahead of any official Tesla release). The Tesla-Korea CCS1 adapter will fit and work in the charge-ports of all models (except original Roadster), including "Classic" and "Refreshed" Models S and X, provided that individual cars are "CCS-enabled." A vehicle-firmware update around December 2021 allows drivers to see whether their cars are currently capable of using CCS charging equipment. In general, vehicles produced from early 2020 onward (excluding the period 06/21-10/21) may have CCS capability. September 2022 Update: After a brief "Golden Era" of just a few months, Tesla-Korea allegedly began preventing further exports of CCS1 adapters to North American drivers. Potential Tesla CCS1 adapter customers in Canada and the U.S. are once again (not so) patiently awaiting release of the Tesla CCS1 adapter directly in North America. Meanwhile, a number of new third-party/aftermarket CCS1 adapters have appeared on Internet markets.
September 21, 2022 Update: Tesla has finally released its CCS1 adapter directly in North America. See it for sale here (Canada) and here (U.S.), along with a link to the Owner's Manual in English.
- Tesla-Europe offers two versions of the adapter/retrofit package for older Model S: pre- and post-June 2016.