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International Electric-Car Charging-Plug Standards

tps5352

Active Member
Supporting Member
There are a number of informative charts on the Internet illustrating international standards for electric-vehicle charging. However, many show ports and/or sockets, and not plugs, and few include the Tesla proprietary charging-connector standard for comparison.

Allegedly shut out by other manufacturers, the young Tesla independently developed an efficient charging standard for the Model S (2012) in North America. Meanwhile, electric-car-maker industry groups developed their own charging standards in some regions (e.g., CCS Combo 1 and J1772 in North America, and CHAdeMO in Japan). At last count Tesla manufactured cars with at least four different charging port styles worldwide to meet regional requirements, including:
  1. Tesla Proprietary Connector (TPC) port in North America, Japan, and South Korea.
  2. Type 2 ("Mennekes") port on Models S and X in Europe and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand).
  3. CCS Combo 2 port on Models 3 and Y in Europe and Oceania.
  4. Dual GB/T AC and DC ports in China.
These distinct charging ports in turn require up to at least five different cable-plug types--TPC, Type 2, CCS2, and GBT/T AC and DC)--to allow home and on-the-road charging equipment to properly connect to Tesla cars in the major market areas. In various countries (e.g., Europe and Oceania now; North America soon?), Tesla Superchargers may be outfitted with more than one charging plug type. And then there are the many kinds of Tesla and aftermarket adapters that allow the insertion of one type of charging plug into another type of vehicle charging port...

A comprehensive, comparative diagram of international charge-plug standards could therefore easily require at least two charts:
  1. One comparing standards for non-Tesla electric cars.
  2. One for Tesla Models S, X, 3, and Y.
Meanwhile, here is a concise compromise developed from the figure in Ecoli's post.

Electric Car Charging-Plug Standards Worldwide

International Charging Standards
Notes:
  1. NOTE: Diagrams and photos in other online charging-standard comparison charts may include figures of sockets, ports, and/or plugs. The intent here is to illustrate only plugs.
  2. Models S, X, 3, and Y worldwide require TPC, Type 2, CCS2, or GB/T AC and DC plugs (in red in the chart, above) to accommodate the various regional factory-installed ports. Adapter are required for Tesla cars to use J1772, CHAdeMO, and CCS1 charging equipment.
  3. Tesla in Europe modified the Mennekes plugs on its (early) Superchargers so that other European electric car brands (with non-modified Type 2 ports) could not use (and be potentially damaged by) the relatively powerful new Superchargers of that period.
  4. China originally used the European standards, but subsequently developed its own connectors, now used in to all electric cars sold there.
  5. Taiwan originally used the TPC connectors, but switched to the European standards.
  6. Although seemingly similar in appearance in some online chart diagrams, the European and Chinese AC charging plug standards are not the same. (They differ in gender and internal design.)
  7. Japan and China have apparently developed a new, more powerful, combined CHAdeMO-GB/T standard (not yet in use as of February 2022).
  8. Tesla ("T" indicates sold by Tesla, regionally) and third-party ("●") over-the-counter adapters include connectors for:
    T - J1772 plugs to TPC ports
    T - CHAdeMO plugs to TPC ports
    T - CHAdeMO plugs to Type 2 ports
    T - CCS Combo 1 (CCS1) plugs to TPC ports (currently for Models 3 & Y only in South Korea)
    ● - Type 2 plugs to TPC ports
    ● - CCS2 plugs to TPC ports
    T - CCS2 plugs to Type 2 ports
    T - GB/T AC plugs to Type 2 ports
    T - GB/T DC plugs to Type 2 ports
    For illustrations see chart, below.
  9. A (much-anticipated) CCS1-plug-to-TPC-port adapter has yet to be officially released by Tesla in North America (as of 05/22). (However, after finding that it is fully functional in CCS-enabled cars, clever TMC'ers started successfully importing the adapter from South Korea.)
Here is a companion chart of:

Tesla-made Charging-Cable-to-Car Adapters of the World.

Tesla International DC Adapter.jpg

Footnotes
  1. This adapter is also sold by Tesla in Hong Kong.
  2. It is unclear whether Tesla-Taiwan's CHAdeMO adapters include either/both Type 2 (the current standard) and TPC varieties.
  3. May 2022 Update: North American drivers have successfully imported this Tesla-Korea CCS1 adapter (ahead of any official Tesla release). The Tesla-Korea CCS1 adapter will fit and work in the charge-ports of all models (except original Roadster), including "Classic" and "Refreshed" Models S and X, provided that individual cars are "CCS-enabled." A vehicle-firmware update around December 2021 allows drivers to see whether their cars are currently capable of using CCS charging equipment. In general, vehicles produced from early 2020 onward (excluding the period 06/21-10/21) may have CCS capability.
  4. Tesla-Europe offers two versions of the adapter/retrofit package for older Model S: pre- and post-June 2016.
 
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ItsNotAboutTheMoney

Well-Known Member
Jul 12, 2012
11,986
10,284
Maine
Nice job!

I just wonder why the all the non-TPC are so bulky, and why do CCS have that scrotum under the main plug? (why not integrate to main plug?)

I think for CCS they wanted to keep the AC and DC power separated while being able to have ports that doesn't take up too much space overall.
Consider that the CHAdeMO approach has two ports, side by side.
Although maybe it's really just not being willing to bite the bullet on backwards-compatibility, or keeping the AC charging the same as in PHEVs.

The CCS design uses the signaling pins from the AC port, but have the separate, larger pins for the DC power.
AC power is routed through the onboard charger, but DC power isn't, and the wiring is completely separated.
Can't blow the onboard charger plugging in at DC.
 

tps5352

Active Member
Supporting Member
Looks like the Type 2 can plug into the GB/T, true?

From what I’ve read, no. (Unless you like sparks, smoke, and flames. :) )

*****​

Seriously, I do not know if the dimensions are such that the Type 2 plug could fit into/around the GB/T AC plug. (But why would anyone want to? Heck, now that you've got me thinking about it, I want to try it! Someone from China, where both standards have been used, might be able to tell us.)
 
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tps5352

Active Member
Supporting Member
Looks like the Type 2 can plug into the GB/T, true?

The GB/T AC is essentially reversed.

This chart from (modified from Wikipedia) illustrates some of the differences among the various electric-car charging connectors. In these diagrams I believe we are looking at plug ends. Note the wiring difference between the European Type 2 and Chinese Type 2 plugs--they are not quite a mirror images. And they differ physically--the contacts of the two plugs are gender-reversed. Despite that it seems unlikely that a European Type 2 plug would fit cleanly into a Chinese Type 2 plug. (It just looks like it might in diagrams.)

Note the ChaoJi connector standard, which will be a CHAdeMO 3.0 device and possibly replace both the Japanese and Chinese DC charging standards. (And therefore create more manufacturing headaches for Tesla?)

Charge Port Wiring Configurations - 5.jpg
Some Acronyms:
  • CC - ?
  • CHAdeMO - "CHArge de MOve"
  • CP - Control Pilot Line (post-insertion signaling)
  • L1-L3 - Lines 1-3 (single- or three-phase AC)
  • DC+ and DC- (high voltage DC positive and negative lines)
  • GB/T - "recommended national standards"
  • N - Neutral (single- or three-phase AC)
  • PE - Protective Earth
  • PP - Proximity Pilot (pre-insertion signaling)
  • SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
 

Earl

Member
Jan 22, 2014
632
891
USA
CHAdeMO - "CHArge de MOve"
The actual acronym was supposedly a Japanese one that sounded like "lets have some tea", implying what one might do while charging. CHArge de MOve was an attempt to come up with an anglo-use of the acronym.
I'll also add that CHAdeMO was developed by TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power COmpany) to meet urban needs following their discovery that a fleet of short range (~30 miles) EVs they made available for employees at their Tokyo HQ would seldom venture very far, nowhere near the range that the car would support, from the HQ due to range anxiety. They discovered, however, that with a small number of DC fast chargers (I believe it was 3), people started driving the EVs much farther from HQ although they almost never used the fast chargers. Just having them there gave them the confidence to venture out a lot farther.
 

Rocky_H

Well-Known Member
Feb 19, 2015
8,161
10,429
Boise, ID
and why do CCS have that scrotum under the main plug? (why not integrate to main plug?)
That kind of comes from the AC charging being developed first. The Type1 and Type 2 were made, with cars having ports for that. With adding the DC charging later, what should be done there while also retaining enough backward compatibility with the existing AC charging plugs? CHAdeMO is kind of dumb, because it's DC only. You have to have two entirely separate ports, side by side built into every car. Blegh. So with the CCS system, they could just add the two big fat pins for the DC current, but still use the upper part for the communication. That way, all of the cars could be built with just ONE port, but you could plug TWO kinds of plugs into it--much cleaner and simpler.
 
That kind of comes from the AC charging being developed first. The Type1 and Type 2 were made, with cars having ports for that. With adding the DC charging later, what should be done there while also retaining enough backward compatibility with the existing AC charging plugs? CHAdeMO is kind of dumb, because it's DC only. You have to have two entirely separate ports, side by side built into every car. Blegh. So with the CCS system, they could just add the two big fat pins for the DC current, but still use the upper part for the communication. That way, all of the cars could be built with just ONE port, but you could plug TWO kinds of plugs into it--much cleaner and simpler.
And yet, it is actually 2 ports!
I see many cars have a cover over the scrotum DC pins.
So a person has to open the main door, then open the cover, then OK to plug in.
It is also obvious it is 2 connectors, a big round one and the oval one under, although it is combined in obnoxiously big connector.

IMHO an entirely new, smaller, cheaper, and easier connector is needed.

Time to get rid of TPC.

No point in having it other than to maintain a walled garden.
Changing the connector does not get rid of walled garden.
Other car can plug in, but without account cannot get charged, and it may be reserved for Tesla only.

Europe Tesla uses CCS, but only Tesla can use those stations (except Norway and Netherlands)
 
Changing the connector does not get rid of walled garden.
Other car can plug in, but without account cannot get charged, and it may be reserved for Tesla only.

Europe Tesla uses CCS, but only Tesla can use those stations (except Norway and Netherlands)
No, I am talking about Tesla vehicles being able to charge at any public fast charger.
 
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Earl

Member
Jan 22, 2014
632
891
USA
That kind of comes from the AC charging being developed first. The Type1 and Type 2 were made, with cars having ports for that. With adding the DC charging later, what should be done there while also retaining enough backward compatibility with the existing AC charging plugs? CHAdeMO is kind of dumb, because it's DC only. You have to have two entirely separate ports, side by side built into every car. Blegh. So with the CCS system, they could just add the two big fat pins for the DC current, but still use the upper part for the communication. That way, all of the cars could be built with just ONE port, but you could plug TWO kinds of plugs into it--much cleaner and simpler.
Remember, also, that the SAE J-1772 committee, originally was trying to limit charging to 16 amps (~3.3kW). This was driven by GM's push to require an ICE for any long distance driving, ie the Volt. Therefore, the J-1772 power pins weren't large enough to handle truly fast charging. Luckily, by the time it was eventually ratified, the J-1772 connector could handle up to 80 amps. Of course, Tesla had already had to go their own way with the 70-amp capable Roadster charging connector.
With the wimpy 80 amp power pins on J-1772, the only slightly-reasonable way they could enable fast charging was by tacking on the 2 high-power pins in the CCS Frankenplug. Luckily, again, Tesla's Model S connector was already deployed. Since Porsche was taking such a beating in the market, they pressured the SAE committee to ensure the CCS high-power pins could handle truly fast (~350 kW) charging rates to allow them higher-speed bragging rights This was despite the fact that many on the committee were pushing for minimal (~50 KW) fast charging that would not enable convenient road tripping.

IMHO an entirely new, smaller, cheaper, and easier connector is needed.
Like the Tesla connector, perhaps?
 
Remember, also, that the SAE J-1772 committee, originally was trying to limit charging to 16 amps (~3.3kW). This was driven by GM's push to require an ICE for any long distance driving, ie the Volt. Therefore, the J-1772 power pins weren't large enough to handle truly fast charging. Luckily, by the time it was eventually ratified, the J-1772 connector could handle up to 80 amps. Of course, Tesla had already had to go their own way with the 70-amp capable Roadster charging connector.
With the wimpy 80 amp power pins on J-1772, the only slightly-reasonable way they could enable fast charging was by tacking on the 2 high-power pins in the CCS Frankenplug. Luckily, again, Tesla's Model S connector was already deployed. Since Porsche was taking such a beating in the market, they pressured the SAE committee to ensure the CCS high-power pins could handle truly fast (~350 kW) charging rates to allow them higher-speed bragging rights This was despite the fact that many on the committee were pushing for minimal (~50 KW) fast charging that would not enable convenient road tripping.


Like the Tesla connector, perhaps?

We really missed the boat in the USA with the lack of 3 phase support. If we do move to a new connector it needs to support even faster DC and 3 phase AC. Most commercial locations have 3 phase power.

In the UK the Renault Zoe can AC charge at 22kW with the normal type2 plug it is able to use the 3phase A/C motor controller to charge the battery.

The motor controllers on our cars are capable of much more than 22kW, we just need an A/C plug capable. Think about how much less it would cost to deploy 50kW chargers around cities and mall car parks if they were simple EVSE with a billing meter.
 

miimura

Well-Known Member
Aug 21, 2013
7,373
7,355
Los Altos, CA
We really missed the boat in the USA with the lack of 3 phase support. If we do move to a new connector it needs to support even faster DC and 3 phase AC. Most commercial locations have 3 phase power.

In the UK the Renault Zoe can AC charge at 22kW with the normal type2 plug it is able to use the 3phase A/C motor controller to charge the battery.

The motor controllers on our cars are capable of much more than 22kW, we just need an A/C plug capable. Think about how much less it would cost to deploy 50kW chargers around cities and mall car parks if they were simple EVSE with a billing meter.
If you really need 3-phase support for your commercial vehicle, you can use SAE J-3068. It is essentially CCS Type-2 with digital communication extension to indicate the AC voltage capability of the station so that a wider voltage range can be supported, including Canadian 347Y600V.
 
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Earl

Member
Jan 22, 2014
632
891
USA
We really missed the boat in the USA with the lack of 3 phase support.
I haven't seen this to be a problem. With most EVs' onboard chargers limited to 32 amps, it really doesn't make much sense if this comes from single or 3-phase. With 240VAC single phase, this is 7.7 KW, while at 207 VAC with one leg of 3-phase, it is 6.6 KW . I've used J-1772 chargers up to 70 amps on single phase 240v AC or one leg of a 3-phase at 207v AC. Its the car's charger that makes the biggest difference.
While 3-phase is a little more efficient in transport , overall, it makes little difference in charging capability.
Superchargers nearly all source from 3-Phase as far as I know.
 
Like the Tesla connector, perhaps?
Similar concept to the TCP.

Both AC and DC, 480v (maybe 800v?), high amp, with communications and dual safety pins (and locking pin?).

I do not know or hear of one, probably and overkill, but some kind of breaking disconnect (like on fuel pump's) on the line in case a connected car is moved.
NOT saying the connected car drives away, but is moved be it accident or nature, or towed.
 

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