Full sun today, ambient temperature 82F (28C), I took my handy infra-red thermometer gun (love that thing) out for some shooting. Car is in the sun, mostly directly towards windshield and roof now although towards the side of the car earlier. Windows are 1/3 open, sun shade on windshield Skin: 27C Concrete driveway shaded by tree: 29C Concrete driveway in the sun: 44C Front black seat in shade: 40C Car roof outside, in direct sunlight: 42C Car roof inside: 50C Silver metal: 42C Sunshade exterior facing: 40C Interesting numbers. My guesses ahead of time were poor. It appears that the greenhouse effect is strong ( probably not from the roof) even on a windy day and with windows partly open, and the roof tint is an insulator.