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Tesla Charge Ports & Plugs from China, North America, and Europe Compared (for Models S, X, 3, & Y)

tps5352

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Here is a comparative table of the latest (as of 2021) Tesla charge connectors (inlet-ports and cable-end-plugs) used in three key market areas within the Tesla car world—mainland China, North America, and Europe. The charge-equipment standards used for new Tesla cars in those regions are, respectively, (a) Guobiao/Tuijian (GB/T), (b) Tesla Proprietary Connector (TPC), and (c) Type 2 (Mennekes)/Combined Charging System (CCS) Combo 2.

Certain other world areas use North American- and European-style charging equipment. See notes, below.

Based on the world-map of supercharger and destination charger locations, future large electric-car markets may include Central and South America, Africa and Madagascar, the Indian sub-continent, and Russia, as well as collectively many other Tesla-poor nations and regions. (Tesla Charger Map) A world map showing the major Tesla sales areas and corresponding types of charging equipment connectors is here: Charging Equipment of the World.

Tesla Charge Ports & Plugs of the World Compared
(for Models S, X, 3, & Y)
Tesla Charge-Ports & -Plugs

(1), (2), & (3) EV Car Plug, Port, and Adapter
NOTES (China)
  • The acronym "GB/T" stands for "Guobiao" ("National Standard") and "Tuijian" ("Recommended").
  • Note incompatible gender and wiring differences between otherwise similar Chinese and European Type 2 plug ends.
  • Older cars:
    • Model S (before October 2017) and Model 3 (before November 2019) came with a single European-style Type 2 charge-port.
    • These cars must use GB/T AC (alternating current) and GB/T DC (direct current) adapters in order to charge from National Standard equipment.
      Tesla GB/T-to-Type 2 A/C Adapter (China) Tesla GB/T-to-Type 2 D/C Adapter (China)
  • Newer cars come equipped with dual GB/T ports. No National Standard adapters are required.
NOTES (North America)
  • All model-years use Tesla Proprietary Connection (TPC) ports, which accept both Tesla AC and DC equipment.
  • The Level 2 J1772 adapter (with TPC plug) is used at public AC charging stations and for non-Tesla home/destination charging equipment.
    Tesla J1772-to-TPC A/C Adapter (North America)
  • Third-party CHAdeMO DC fast-charge stations are found in North America.
    • Until October 2021 Tesla offered a CHAdeMO adapter with TPC plug intended for use with all four models.
      Tesla CHAdeMO-to-TPC D/C Adapter (North America)
  • Third-party CCS1 (CCS Combo 1) DC fast-charge stations (used by almost all non-Tesla electric cars in North America) are increasing in number.
    • A Tesla CCS Combo 1 adapter is supposedly coming "soon" to North America. (A presumably similar Tesla CCS1 adapter in South Korea is not compatible with North American vehicles and/or the CCS1 charging stations they hope to use.)
      Tesla CCS1-to-TPC D/C Adapter (South Korea)
  • Cars sold in Japan (Models S, X, 3), South Korea (all models), and (previously) Taiwan (S, X, 3) also come/came with Tesla proprietary (TPC) ports.
    • Tesla CHAdeMO adapters with TPC plugs are sold in South Korea and Taiwan (see below) and may still be available from dealers in Japan.
    • The Tesla CCS Combo 1 adapter sold just in South Korea (see note above) is for Models 3 & Y there only.
    • In TaiwanTesla has switched from North American TPC to European Type 2 ("Mennekes") ports and plugs.
      • The CHAdeMO adapter with TPC plug is still listed but is currently (as of 11/2021) "sold out."
      • Two types of Tesla Generation 2 Mobile Connectors (for home AC use) are available for (older) cars with the TPC port and for (newer) cars with the Type 2 port.
NOTES (Europe)
  • A (likely) goal of allowing all model-years to use all Supercharger, CCS2, and CHAdeMO sites throughout Europe has not yet been fully achieved. But the level of access is good, especially for certain models.
    • According to Tesla, the Supercharger network is (collectively) available to all model-years (Supercharging in Europe). V2 Superchargers now have two cables to accommodate cars with either Type 2 or CCS2 ports. V3 Superchargers each have one CCS2 cable.
    • Ultimately, the ability to use specific Supercharger and other DC charging sites still depends on model, age, and hardware/software-status of the car as well as availability of charging adapters (see model-specific notes, below).
  • Note incompatible gender and wiring differences between the otherwise similar-appearing European and Chinese Type 2 plugs.
  • Models S & X:
    • All years to date come with Type 2 charge-ports (pictured in the Table, above).
    • Note modifications to the basic "Mennekes" design in the Model S port pictured below. Only Models S and X were apparently originally intended to use Superchargers.
      Model S Type 2 (modified) Charge Port - 2 (Europe)
    • To use CCS2 equipment, a CCS Combo 2 (CCS2-to-Type 2) adapter is required.
      Tesla CCS2-to-Type 2 D/C Adapter (Europe)
    • Cars made before May 2019 also require a hardware retrofit to use Tesla CCS2 adapters. Newer cars do not need such a retrofit.
    • A Tesla CHAdeMO adapter (with Type 2 plug) remains available (for Models S & X only). Older vehicles must be Supercharger-enabled (at a Service Center) to accept the CHAdeMO adapter. Newer vehicles come Supercharger-enabled from the factory.
      Tesla CHAdeMO-to-Type 2 D/C Adapter (Europe)
    • In summary, all Models S & X (with qualifications) should now be able to charge at:
      • V2 Superchargers.​
      • V3 Superchargers (using a CCS Combo 2 adapter--see note above on whether a hardware retrofit is needed).​
      • Third-party CCS2 charging stations (using that CCS2 adapter).​
      • Third-party CHAdeMO stations (using the CHAdeMO adapter--see note above on needing to be Supercharger-enabled).​
  • Models 3 & Y
    • Since November 2018 Models 3 and Y come outfitted with CCS Combo 2 inlet-ports (pictured in the Table, above).
    • Models 3 & Y outfitted with CCS2 ports should be able to charge at:
      • V2 Superchargers (which have been retrofitted with CCS2 charging cables).
      • V3 Superchargers.
      • Third-party CCS2 charging stations.
      • Sadly, these cars cannot use Supercharger cables with Type 2 plugs.
      • And they cannot use Tesla CHAdeMO adapters.
  • Other areas that use European-style charge connectors include New Zealand, Australia, Macao, Hong Kong, and (now) Taiwan.
    • In Australia and New Zealand (part of Oceania) Tesla sells Models S, X, and 3.
      • Supercharger characteristics are similar to those in Europe.
        - V2 Superchargers now have CCS2 and Type 2 (modified) charge cables.
        - Proprietary Supercharger Type 2 plugs have that extra "key" that prevents entry into non-Tesla car (Type 2) ports.
        - V3 Superchargers have CCS2 cables only.
      • As in Europe, Models S & X continue to come with Type 2 (modified) charge-ports.
        - A Tesla CCS Combo 2 adapter (CCS2-to-Type 2) is available.
        - As is a Tesla CHAdeMO adapter (with Type 2 plug).
      • Model 3 comes with the CCS2 port (Tesla Charging in Australia).
        - These cars require no adapter to use CCS2 Supercharger and third-party charging stations.
        - But are unable to use the Tesla CHAdeMO DC adapter or Supercharger Type 2 cables.
    • In Hong Kong and Macao Tesla sells the GB/T-to-Type 2 AC adapter (see Mainland China notes) on its websites.
    • See also information about Taiwan under "NOTES (North America)," above.
NOTES (all)
  • Charge-plug-end illustrations are not to scale.
  • The (4-color) charge-plug illustrations (derived from Wikipedia sources) are intended to reveal:
    • The full range of possible connection-circuit functions, and
    • internal and external differences among regional equipment.
    • Individual circuit pathways may or may not be active or even present depending on whether a plug is intended for AC or DC loads.
  • We know that charging a Tesla car from one region (say North America) in another region (Europe, for example) may be possible.
    • But research, planning, and preparation should be undertaken before taking a car from one region to another.
    • Despite that, not all charging options (e.g., Supercharging) may ultimately be available.
    • As a help. aftermarket adapters may be available to increase charging opportunities in the region to be visited.
    • But use appropriate caution when selecting and using non-Tesla charging accessories.
    • Also, we are told that not all vehicle features, like Navigation, may function properly in a new region.
    • So if you plan to take a car from one region to another, investigate carefully and thoroughly.
  • See Charging Equipment of the World for a map showing where various types of charging equipment are used in the different countries.
  • Sources included Wikipedia, Electrek, Teslarati, Reddit, and the TMC.
Words of Caution: Presentation of this information to North American readers, in particular, is not simply an academic exercise.
  • In recent years Tesla vehicles and charging equipment in China and Europe have undergone significant (and cumulatively expensive) charging-standard conversions that affected both newer and older cars.
  • It is conceivable that Tesla in North American could bow to internal or external pressures and eventually do away with its long-time North American proprietary charging (TPC) standard since...
  • increasingly, most electric cars, both worldwide and in North America, use charging-equipment standards other than TPC.

In conclusion, future North American Tesla drivers may experience aspects from among at least three Possibilities:
  1. No change. Cars, Superchargers, and Tesla charging equipment (wall and mobile connectors and optional adapters) continue to use the popular and convenient Tesla Proprietary Connector (TPC) ports and plugs. (Non-Tesla drivers allowed to use Superchargers would presumably have to employ a TPC-to-CCS1 adapter or be limited to selected Supercharger stalls outfitted with CCS1 cables.)
  2. New and retrofitted Superchargers start to come with CCS1 (CCS Combo 1) charge cables, increasingly requiring Tesla operators to use CCS1-to-TPC adapters for the fastest charging.
  3. At some point Tesla transitions to a new North American standard--new cars, Superchargers, and mobile charging equipment all eventually come with CCS1 (or other?) ports and plugs. Older cars have to use a CCS1 adapter.
A combination of Possibilities 2 and 3 might approximate what has already happened in China and Europe (plus Oceania and Taiwan).
 
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mociaf9

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Oct 18, 2018
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NOTES (Europe)
  • All model-years can use Tesla-Europe superchargers.
This isn't entirely true. Newer European superchargers often only have full CCS2 plugs, so Model S/X vehicles need to have the adapter to use them. At older supercharger stations, this isn't the case and those superchargers were retrofitted to have both the CCS2 and Tesla Type2 plugs so both Model S/X and Model 3/Y type cars can charge from them regardless of having an adapter.
 
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tps5352

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I believe all V2 superchargers in the relevant Euro/Oceania regions now have CCS2 and modified Type 2 plus. As noted V3 are CCS2 only.

Probably also worth noting the the modified Type 2 plug has an extra key, which prevents it from fitting in a Type 2 slot.

Done. Thanks. This has been relatively new information for me, and probably many non-Europe/Oceania drivers.
 

moa999

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No problem
Within Australia having a native CCS2 is very convenient as third party networks cover many areas that Tesla superchargers don't.

I'd also add that there is an expectation that sometime in 2022 the tail lights on the revised S/X will be altered to allow for a CCS2 port (or GB/T) before exports commence again from the US.

The current China solution of a visible flap (like an ice car) isn't ideal.

Final note that Australia/NZ at least almost went down a Type1/CCS1 path with early BMW imports being Type1, along with the Japanese vehicles.
There are still a number of mostly Chargepoint branded Type 1 units (even though Chargepoint left Australia in 2019), and a couple of CCS1/ChaDeMo fast chargers (one owned by a university, other by council), though a few others have recently been converted to CCS2/ChaDeMo.
A few local Tesla owners own CCS1-CCS2 adapters to use these stalls.
 
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QBN_PC

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CCS Type 2 in your graphic could perhaps be modified. The pins you've coloured as yellow (L1, L2, L3 and N) only exist when you're plugging in an AC cable. On a DC cable all you have is blank space where you'd expect to find those four pins. And even if the pins exist somewhere, they don't do anything when you're charging on DC.

Australia is lots of fun. You get so many options and can choose between overpriced superchargers & cheaper (or sometimes more expensive but faster) third party options.

If you want to find an even more interesting country, just look at Taiwan. An interesting mix of CCS1, CCS2 and other standards. Some day once UoW converts to CCS2 I'll see if I can sell my CCS1 to CCS2 adapter to someone there.
 
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tps5352

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I believe all V2 superchargers in the relevant Euro/Oceania regions now have CCS2 and modified Type 2 plus. As noted V3 are CCS2 only.

Probably also worth noting the the modified Type 2 plug has an extra key, which prevents it from fitting in a Type 2 slot.

So, it sounds like other than offering only three models (S, X, and 3), the Australia situation is very similar to that in Europe.
 
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tps5352

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CCS Type 2 in your graphic could perhaps be modified. The pins you've coloured as yellow (L1, L2, L3 and N) only exist when you're plugging in an AC cable. On a DC cable all you have is blank space where you'd expect to find those four pins. And even if the pins exist somewhere, they don't do anything when you're charging on DC...

Yes, I was kind of hoping to avoid the detailed electrical engineering stuff (a) because it's not my expertise and (b) because things quickly get even more complicated.

I'll have ponder how to handle this. The diagrams aren't mine, and were intended to illustrate a combination of all possible uses, AC and DC. That highlights a problem: my Column headings "AC" and "DC" are not strictly accurate; just "guidelines." I guess it's time for (even) more notes...

*****​

OK, I took a stab at it. Yep, more notes... (Sigh.)
 
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tps5352

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...If you want to find an even more interesting country, just look at Taiwan. An interesting mix of CCS1, CCS2 and other standards. Some day once UoW converts to CCS2 I'll see if I can sell my CCS1 to CCS2 adapter to someone there.

Up 'till now I've been trying to skirt precipitating an international incident. But I can't contain my curiosity. Just why did Tesla in Taiwan switch charging equipment standards; do you know?
 

Vostok

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So, it sounds like other than offering only three models (S, X, and 3), the Australia situation is very similar to that in Europe.
Currently, the only Tesla one can buy in Australia is the 3 (or a Powerwall 😄)! Model S/X deliveries are out to the end of 2022 - and given current Tesla demand and global logistics issues - more likely 2023. They may as well not have them on the website.

But apart from that, yes, Australia has gone full-bore on CCS2 and it is now the de-facto standard. Which is great for Model 3 drivers. CHAdeMO is a fading legacy only used on a couple of vehicles and I believe even the next iteration of the Nissan Leaf coming here will dump it for CCS2. It won’t be missed.
 

Chuq

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Including form factor, cabinets, connectors, etc there are an insane number of varieties of supercharger in existence.

(1) V1 (North America only).

I don't know a lot about these. I believe the form factor was very similar to (2) below. Stall hardware was a bit more blocky - cable was in a door at the end?

(2) V2 (North American version)

Supercharger cabinet (150 kW) connects to two stalls each with one Tesla proprietary connector (TPC).

(3) V2 (European version)

Supercharger cabinet (150 kW) connects to two stalls each with one Type 2 connector.
(later upgraded -see (6))

(4) V2 (Chinese version)

Supercharger cabinet (150 kW) connects to two stalls each with one GB/T connector.
(I believe Tesla originally tried TPC in China but later changed all to GB/T?)

(5) V2 Urban (North America only - with a small number of exceptions)

Supercharger cabinet (150 kW) connects to two stalls each capable of 72 kW with one TPC connector.
Stall hardware is physically smaller. Each stall limited to 72 kW.

(6) V2 dual cable (European version)
(most of these were upgrades from (3))
Supercharger cabinet (150 kW) connects to two stalls each with one Type 2 connector AND one CCS2 connector.

(7) V3 (North American version)
Supercharger cabinet (350 kW)* connects to four stalls each capable of 250 kW with one TPC connector.

(8) V3 (European version)
Supercharger cabinet (350 kW)* connects to four stalls each capable of 250 kW each with one CCS2 connector.
(Variations with three stalls also exist and are used exclusively in some regions)

(9) V3 (Chinese version)
Supercharger cabinet (350 kW)* connects to four stalls each capable of 250 kW each with one GB/T connector.
(Variations with three stalls also exist and are used exclusively in some regions)

(10) V2 (Taiwan special edition)
(11) V3 (Taiwan special edition)
I need to get more info on these. Some sites in Taiwan have stalls with both TPC and CCS2 connectors. They come in both V2 and V3 versions. Not entirely clear on how they look, description is based on info on Tesla's "findus" map.

* Each cabinet capable of drawing approx 350 kW on its own from the grid. Can also share between other cabinets, solar and battery sources.

"North American version" means North America, Japan, South Korea, and for the time being, Taiwan [note - is changing to CCS2].

"European version" means Europe, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Macau, Hong Kong, Africa (based on Morocco) and Central Asia (based on Uzbekistan). [also Taiwan which is changing from TPC]

Other variations:

  • Temporary chargers (either on pallets or with Megapack on trailers) often combine (2) and (5) - i.e. they use urban supercharger hardware but are not limited to 72 kW per stall.
  • Some sites have a mix of TPC and Type 2/CCS2 stalls. This is where vehicles were commonly imported from the USA originally and local versions were later made available. e.g. UAE. These sites are a combination of (2) and (6) hardware. Different to the Taiwan sites mentioned above where each stall has a mix of TPC/CCS2 connectors.
  • There are also variations which have lower power ratings presumably due to local power grid limitations.
  • Also "Open to 3rd parties" / "Not open to 3rd party vehicles" is another variable, though not a physical one.

And that's everything you wish you didn't know about superchargers!
 
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tps5352

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...(9) V3 (North American version)
Supercharger cabinet (350 kW)* connects to four stalls each capable of 250 kW each with one GB/T connector.
(Variations with three stalls also exist and are used exclusively in some regions)
...

Can you still edit Number 9? Should it be "Chinese version?"

Good job, by the way.
 
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Chuq

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There is also a version of the V3 Supercharger cabinet that only has 3 outputs instead of 4. I believe these have been seen in China.
Yep, mentioned under (8) and (9) :) All V3 superchargers in Australia, and probably a few other countries, are exclusively this format. Either 3 or 6 stall sites.

Found a pic of one of the weird Taiwan ones - you can see the left hand stall is CCS2:

bLn5qXY.png


Tesla's page for the site: 桃園-楊梅
 
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tps5352

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...Australia...

...Australia...

Australia

Australia


Followup: A curiosity from comparing various Tesla "Charging" "Shop" websites as of January, 7, 2021.
  • (Type 2 plug) CHAdeMO adapter in Australia - $510 (Aus); $565 in New Zealand

  • (Type 2 plug) CHAdeMO adapter in the United Kingdom - £99 (so only about $187 [Aus]) (Misprint?)

  • (Type 2 plug) CHAdeMO adapter in Germany - 149 € (so about $236 [Aus])
That may be a fairly recent price drop in Britain. I assume that the Oceania and European CHAdeMO adapter versions are pretty much identical? (I also assume prices in other European countries are similar to Germany's.) Your thoughts?

BTW, CHAdeMO adapters are now absent from Canda, USA, and Japan sites. (Still available on Hong Kong, Taiwan sites.) In the final year in the USA, the CHAdeMO price dropped from $450 to $400 (US). Then they vanished in September/October 2021 (except for scalpers on eBay).
 

moa999

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Followup: A curiosity from comparing various Tesla "Charging" "Shop" websites as of January, 7, 2022
Suspect they are run out prices, particularly as no new S/X and rumours of the tail light redesign for refresh exports incorporating CCS2 or GB/T.
Reality is CHAdeMO is a dying standard in those countries.

Particularly with new V3 Tesla Superchargers being CCS2, you'd be much better investing in that if your an older S/X owner and don't have an adapter.

Remember these CHAdeMO are not for the 3/Y in non-US markets
 
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tps5352

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Suspect they are run out prices, particularly as no new S/X and rumours of the tail light redesign for refresh exports incorporating CCS2 or GB/T.
Reality is CHAdeMO is a dying standard in those countries.

Particularly with new V3 Tesla Superchargers being CCS2, you'd be much better investing in that if your an older S/X owner and don't have an adapter.

Remember these CHAdeMO are not for the 3/Y in non-US markets

Yes. CHAdeMO appears to be disappearing. (I got rid of my, unused, adapter. I'll purchase a CCS1 adapter eventually.) I imagine that there are some pushing Tesla to do away with its (2012 Model S) original TPC proprietary standard entirely and just provide CCS1 ports on new North American cars and additional cables on Superchargers (like Tesla-Europe was forced to do with CCS2 ports on Models 3 & Y). Then Tesla would just have GB/T, CCS1, and CCS2 standards to handle in manufacturing. But as mentioned, the Models S and X would need design changes for a bigger charge port.
 

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