Not to be a dick, but most of what you wrote is incorrect. Many of those vehicles aren't in the same class and don't compete with each other.
5 series and E class are big-mid-size sedans starting in the mid-$50s at appx 195 inches of length.
A7 is a big-mid-size hatchback starting in the low $70s and is roughly the size of the E class and 5 series (and A6).
GS was discontinued 5 years ago with production ending in 2020, but it was a big-mid-size sedan of the same class as the E class and 5 series, with dimensions a hair shy of those two. The last GS started in the low-$50s.
ES is a big-mid-size sedan with appx 196" of length and starting in the low $40s.
LS is full-size sedan starting at $80k and is about 10" longer than the vehicles mentioned above.
IS, 3 series, and C class are all in the same category having nearly identical dimensions of appx 185" and prices starting in the low-$40s.
I know nothing of Volvo, because it's Volvo, so I'll take you at your word there.