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The Three CARB-ZEV Compliance Car Classifications

Discussion in 'Electric Vehicles' started by TonyWilliams, Dec 27, 2013.

  1. TonyWilliams

    TonyWilliams Active Member

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    #1 TonyWilliams, Dec 27, 2013
    Last edited: Jan 5, 2014
    I actually use three California Air Resources Board - Zero Emissions Vehicle (CARB-ZEV) definitions:


    1) CARB-ZEV Compliance-only - cars like Toyota Rav4 EV, Honda Fit EV, GM Spark EV, Fiat/Chrysler 500e; built because the manufacturer is required to build EV's, and in pure compliance with the rules, the manufacturer makes just the minimum so that they can continue to sell high profit margin oil cars. Anything beyond that is generally in the form of press releases and not cars. These cars are typically sold at a significant loss to their respective manufacturer. Typically optimized for "100 miles", but practically have closer to 70-80 miles, and can be 40-50 miles with cold weather. Making the car go double the 100 mile range only produces 25% more credit hence no compliance-only cars are 200 mile range. They generally don't have ANY quick charge option, or offer a optional quick charge option that doesn't have charge stations.


    2) CARB-ZEV Compliance - cars like Nissan LEAF, and we hope BMW. These are cars that must be built because CARB requires it, however they are typically sold anywhere buyers can be found, generally with a profit motive. They are generally built on a dedicated (and expensive) chassis. Because they really want to sell these, all offer some sort of quick charge.


    3) CARB-ZEV Non-compliance - cars like Tesla Model S and Mitsubishi iMiev, neither company is required to comply, yet they both make 100% ZEV's. Definitely, profit motive cars. They are generally built on a dedicated (and expensive) chassis. Because they really want to sell these, all offer some sort of quick charge


    Here's my ranking of which car manufacturers are most militant and hostile about California Air Resources Board - Zero Emissions Vehicle (CARB-ZEV) compliance, and which ones really want to sell battery electric cars:

    .. Manufacturer .. Model(s) .... A ....... B ...... C ...... D ..... E ..... F
    1. Honda - Fit EV / FCEV ..... YES ..... YES ... YES ... YES ... NO ... YES
    2. Toyota - Rav4 EV / FCEV... NO ..... YES ... YES ... YES ...YES ... YES
    3. Chry/Fiat - Fiat 500e ....... NO ..... YES ... YES ... YES ... NO ... YES
    4. GM - Spark EV ................. NO ..... YES ... YES .... NO ... NO ... YES
    5. Ford - Focus EV ............... NO ..... YES ... NO ... YES ... NO ... YES
    6. Daimler - Smart/B-Class . NO ..... YES .... NO .... NO ... NO ... YES
    7. BMW - i3 ........................ NO ..... NO .... NO .... NO ... NO ... NO
    8. Nissan - LEAF ................. NO ..... NO .... NO .... NO ... NO ... NO


    Can't yet rank:


    V.VW - eGolf ........................ ??? ..... YES .... ??? .... NO ... ??? ... ???
    X. Hyundai - FCEV ................ ??? ..... ??? .... ??? .... NO ... ??? .... NO
    Y. Kia - Soul EV .................... ??? ..... YES .... ??? .... NO ... ??? ... NO
    Z. Mazda - Demio? EV ........... ??? ..... YES .... ??? .... NO ... ??? .... NO


    So, here is the criteria:

    A. Lease Only to be crushed at lease return (no sales whatsoever)?
    B. Converted car (not built on a purpose built EV chassis)?
    C. Only sold in CARB states (not what the manufacturer says, but what they actually do). Only sold in minimal numbers to meet CARB requirements?
    D. Loudly dismiss EV's and the CARB program, and generally announce how FEW they will produce?
    E. Harass owners and dealers when the compliance car is out-of-state (California) with a warranty claim?
    F. Without quick charge access on the compliance car?

    ************

    First, let's be clear about the rules. NOT EVERY CAR MAKER MUST COMPLY WITH CARB-ZEV. Currently, there are six "Large Volume Manufacturers" (LVM) that must produce Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) if they want to sell lots of oil burning cars in California, model years 2012-2014:

    For the 2015 and later model years, all these vehicle manufacturers must comply:

    BMW, Fiat/Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Mazda, Daimler/Mercedes, Nissan, Toyota, and Volkswagen must comply with the new 2012 and later CARB-ZEV requirements. Four additional manufacturers would also be required to comply with the ZEV requirements, but would be allowed to meet their obligation with PHEVs (so they aren't included, since they won't make a true ZEV). Note that neither Mitsubishi, nor Tesla are on the list.

    Motorists to foot bill for California

    Many future ZEV cars will be built to use hydrogen, without exception, are designed to get high value 9 CARB-ZEV credits per vehicle instead of the 1/3 value of 3 credit per "100 mile" battery electric car:

    Toyota, Hyundai, BMW, Nissan, Honda and Mercedes.
     
  2. surfingslovak

    surfingslovak Member

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    Thanks Tony! Does this imply that BMW is at least one year early with their compliance car, and there was no pressing need to run either the MINI-E or the ActiveE field trial from this perspective?
     
  3. Doug_G

    Doug_G Lead Moderator

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    Tony, maybe we should move your post into a separate thread? Seems of general interest, not just I3 related.
     
  4. TonyWilliams

    TonyWilliams Active Member

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    Sure, I'd move it and title it "The Three CARB-ZEV Compliance Car Classifications".

    - - - Updated - - -

    Well, BMW still earned those credits with the Mini-E and ActiveE programs, just like Tesla and Mitsubishi do. But, they were not required to earn them. Assuming Tesla grows big enough, they too will be required to comply so that they can sell beau coup oil cars in California and other CARB states :crying:

    For 2015 model year (I'll bet the US introduction of the i3 is a 2015 model), many German auto manufacturers also must comply, including BMW.
     
  5. Doug_G

    Doug_G Lead Moderator

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    Done!
     
  6. surfingslovak

    surfingslovak Member

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    bmwi3mnl.gif
    Thanks, appreciate the comment and humor. The i3 will launch as a 2014 MY next spring.
     
  7. miimura

    miimura Active Member

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    According to USA model year rules, BMW could introduce the i3 as a 2015 and get Model Year 2015 credits for it. Example: 2014 Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid, introduced January 2013.
     
  8. ZBB

    ZBB Emperor

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    The ordering guide that was posted in the i3 thread lists it as a '14 -- with start of production in March.

    While US law allows anything introduced after Jan 1 to be classified as the following model year, BMW traditionally does model year change over with Sept production...
     
  9. TonyWilliams

    TonyWilliams Active Member

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    Exactly. because the rules are based on model year (and that is coded into the Vehicle Identification Number), crazy stuff happens. Toyota sold their Rav4 EV first on Sept 24, 2012 as a 2012 model, because they wanted the credits for 2012.
     
  10. surfingslovak

    surfingslovak Member

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    Wow, I had no idea that a simple statement would lead to further speculation. I'm pretty certain that what I said up-thread is based on fact, and not fiction. Please don't make me get the tinfoil hat!
     
  11. TonyWilliams

    TonyWilliams Active Member

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    I don't doubt that what you said (2014 model year for BMW i3). If they were building compliance-only cars, it would be a big disadvantage if they needed credits starting in 2015. They'd have to make "too many"!!!!
     

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