I've been pondering a number of posts scattered around a variety of threads in different sub-forums of TMC, all of which deal with the Models S, X and 3 assembly lines, and many of which discuss, hypothesize or fantasize features of robotic vs human assembly, Mr. Musk's "factory as Alien Dreadnought", and so forth. As with most items, there is a great likelihood this Grandmaster of Multidimensional Chess/Go long since has First Principled his way into the correct answer to my thread-head's question, but I've started the thread in order to learn your best ideas. As for me, I hearkened to some lines an experienced builder once put forth regarding a certain structure we were critiquing. He said "That's the Russian School of Construction: First put up the building and later carve out the basement and set the foundation". He wasn't being complimentary.... Now, aren't most cars built à la Russian School, however? That is, first put together the shell (whether body-on-frame or unibody), and second, emplace the interior: wiring harnesses and everything that becomes the cabin? In a robotic assembly, mightn't it make sense to fabricate some structure that is the interior, close to complete other than the various harnesses' final connectors, and then build the vehicle's exterior structure around that? Benefits: would be a far simpler task to emplace harnesses would obviate the tortuous procedure of installing dashboards, seats &c inside a pre-created exterior Challenges: welding of structural members becomes somewhat more challenging with that Alcantara liner already in place.... Paint shop: As presently set up, whether spray, dip or some combination, it's performed only on the bare metal of the gutless vehicle. An interesting task to do before either frame or sheetmetal is unified. But one can make the same argument about current techniques. Existing methodology truly is akin to one of those carved ivory balls surrounding carved ivory balls surrounding carved ivory balls: elegant to look at, horrendous to create.