I agree any TOU success needs to involve automatic system. Like scheduled charging in an EV. If I use ~20% of my battery for my daily commute the ~60%+ I have left when I get home is still enough to run errands and I'm not going to care if the car starts charging at 8pm or 2am so long as I'm back to 80% by 6am. There are some enterprising companies in Texas like Griddy that find ways to pass TOU savings on to their customers. I think that aggregation will actually make things better. If a regulated utility owns (Generation => meter) there's a perverse incentive to make the case for more infrastructure. Additional expense is good because the regulated utility gets 10% of the $400M line upgrade... ??? For 2kW? Pretty sure the grid can handle a bunch of cars charging at 2kW. It's distributed 'peaking power'. Here's a 30MW demo CAISO and EmotorWerks are working on.