Its probably a bit early for us Model S owners to think about the worn out batteries. But there are various quotes of how battery is even worse for the environment than fossil fuel (I know its a natural scare tactic and scientifically quite hard to believe given the consequences of burning fossil fuel) So I thought I dig around a bit for info. Members with battery refurbishment background/experience and material engineers/chemists can probably provide much enlightenment here. What I've found so far is - EU have tough regulatory requirements. Recycling+repurposing effort probably leads in EU? - I've read lots of DIYers refurbishing Honda/Toyota Hybrid batteries. Usually only a small number of cells are bad and creates an imbalance in supply. Just have to swap those out to regain a fully usage battery. This is for NiMH and for hybrids which don't necessary need all of its capacity for range. It is a rather dangerous procedure however. Have to know what you are doing around high voltage electricity. - Used up Li-ion EV batteries can be repurposed for secondary usage (storing energy for solar/wind generators etc..) - A company called Toxco that seems to be North American leader for Li-ion battery recycling - Recovering cobalt and nickel from Li-ion cells seems to be the key recovery at this time. There is the Aluminum+plastic casing etc. Lithium is a small percentage and costly to recover at this time. Here are some links The Lithium Battery Recycling Challenge - Waste Management World http://www.istc.illinois.edu/about/SeminarPresentations/20111115.pdf Lithium Battery Recycling, Alkaline Battery Recycling, GSA Recycling Program - TOXCO Inc. Anyhow, would love to hear from more materials+chemistry+battery rebuild knowledgeable folks.